There are several surgical treatments available to treat cervical spine disorders. Factors that help determine the type of surgical treatment include the specifics of the disc disease and the presence or absence of pressure on the spinal cord or spinal nerve roots. Other factors include age, how long the patient has had the disorder, other medical conditions and if there has been previous cervical spine surgery.

Jump up ^ Lewis RA, Williams NH, Sutton AJ, Burton K, Din NU, Matar HE, Hendry M, Phillips CJ, Nafees S, Fitzsimmons D, Rickard I, Wilkinson C (2013). "Comparative clinical effectiveness of management strategies for sciatica: systematic review and network meta-analyses". Spine Journal. 15 (6): 1461–77. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2013.08.049. PMID 24412033.

Chiropractors, like other primary care providers, sometimes employ diagnostic imaging techniques such as X-rays and CT scans that rely on ionizing radiation.[156] Although there is no clear evidence for the practice, some chiropractors may still X-ray a patient several times a year.[6] Practice guidelines aim to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure,[156] which increases cancer risk in proportion to the amount of radiation received.[157] Research suggests that radiology instruction given at chiropractic schools worldwide seem to be evidence-based.[48] Although, there seems to be a disparity between some schools and available evidence regarding the aspect of radiography for patients with acute low back pain without an indication of a serious disease, which may contribute to chiropractic overuse of radiography for low back pain.[48]


DCs may assess patients through clinical examination, laboratory testing, diagnostic imaging and other diagnostic interventions to determine when chiropractic treatment is appropriate or when it is not appropriate. Chiropractors will readily refer patients to the appropriate health care provider when chiropractic care is not suitable for the patient’s condition, or the condition warrants co-management in conjunction with other health care providers. 
Dr. Bruce attended Harvey Mudd College prior to enrolling in Life Chiropractic College.  Following graduation in 1986, he worked as an associate for Dr. James Reed in Tucker, GA and later purchased the practice.  After 20 years as a solo practitioner, he relocated to Columbus, GA to work for Brodwyn and Associates.  After 6 years in Columbus, he joined Arrowhead Clinic in Hinesville in order to be closer to the beach.  Dr. Bruce has postgraduate training in Personal Injury, posture analysis and extremity care.  While in Tucker and Columbus, he was very involved in the community and served as the team chiropractor for numerous sports teams in the area.

Most people believe that chiropractors treat back pain. That is a true, but there is so much more that chiropractic care can achieve. Because chiropractors help to remove pressure from the nervous system, they can also influence many other conditions. It is common to hear chiropractic patients say that they came in for back pain and their headaches got better.


Because the neck is so flexible and because it supports the head, it is extremely vulnerable to injury. Motor vehicle or diving accidents, contact sports, and falls may result in neck injury. The regular use of safety belts in motor vehicles can help to prevent or minimize neck injury. A "rear end" automobile collision may result in hyperextension, a backward motion of the neck beyond normal limits, or hyperflexion, a forward motion of the neck beyond normal limits. The most common neck injuries involve the soft tissues: the muscles and ligaments. Severe neck injuries with a fracture or dislocation of the neck may damage the spinal cord and cause paralysis.
^ Jump up to: a b Biller, J.; Sacco, R. L.; Albuquerque, F. C.; Demaerschalk, B. M.; Fayad, P.; Long, P. H.; Noorollah, L. D.; Panagos, P. D.; Schievink, W. I.; Schwartz, N. E.; Shuaib, A.; Thaler, D. E.; Tirschwell, D. L. (2014). "Cervical Arterial Dissections and Association With Cervical Manipulative Therapy: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association". Stroke. 45 (10): 3155–74. doi:10.1161/STR.0000000000000016. ISSN 0039-2499. PMID 25104849.
D. D. Palmer founded chiropractic in the 1890s,[23] after saying he received it from "the other world",[24] and his son B. J. Palmer helped to expand it in the early 20th century.[23] Throughout its history, chiropractic has been controversial.[25][26] Despite the overwhelming evidence that vaccination is an effective public health intervention, among chiropractors there are significant disagreements over the subject,[27] which has led to negative impacts on both public vaccination and mainstream acceptance of chiropractic.[28] The American Medical Association called chiropractic an "unscientific cult" in 1966[29] and boycotted it until losing an antitrust case in 1987.[21] Chiropractic has had a strong political base and sustained demand for services; in recent decades, it has gained more legitimacy and greater acceptance among conventional physicians and health plans in the United States.[21]
“When your neck muscles become weak and you try to turn your head, the joint no longer moves smoothly because it’s now out of place,” Dr. Bang says. “Often the joint catches on something, either pulling a muscle or hitting the nerve irregularly, or maybe both. Then you’ll have instant pain and your body has a protective spasm. Your body doesn’t want you to get hurt more, so it will clench, causing you to feel like you can’t even move — and leaving you wondering what you did to injure yourself.”
Chiropractic overlaps with several other forms of manual therapy, including massage therapy, osteopathy, physical therapy, and sports medicine.[19][59] Chiropractic is autonomous from and competitive with mainstream medicine,[60] and osteopathy outside the US remains primarily a manual medical system;[61] physical therapists work alongside and cooperate with mainstream medicine, and osteopathic medicine in the U.S. has merged with the medical profession.[60] Practitioners may distinguish these competing approaches through claims that, compared to other therapists, chiropractors heavily emphasize spinal manipulation, tend to use firmer manipulative techniques, and promote maintenance care; that osteopaths use a wider variety of treatment procedures; and that physical therapists emphasize machinery and exercise.[19]
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are prescribed medications for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and more. One common side effect of NSAIDs is peptic ulcer (ulcers of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum). Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and patient safety information should be reviewed prior to taking NSAIDs.

Health professionals may know better in theory, but often underestimate how easily patients are alarmed by hard evidence of spinal degeneration. To the average person, if something like that shows up on a scan, it’s like proof: it has got to hurt. But the evidence clearly contradicts that! Pain has many possible minor causes; degeneration is often painless and rarely serious even when it is causing trouble. BACK TO TEXT
How long does it take to build muscle with exercise? Performing particular exercises and eating the right foods can help to build muscle over time. In this article, we look in detail at how muscle builds up and long it will take. We also give you some ideas about the types of exercise and diet that can achieve this, as well as some tips on how to exercise safely. Read now

The patients were put into two groups. One group received traditional medical care for back pain along with chiropractic care; the other group only received traditional care. While traditional care can include medication, the chiropractic care included spinal manipulation adjustments along with manual therapies such as ice, heat, cryotherapy, and rehabilitative exercises.


"Physiologists divide nerve-fibers, which form the nerves, into two classes, afferent and efferent. Impressions are made on the peripheral afferent fiber-endings; these create sensations that are transmitted to the center of the nervous system. Efferent nerve-fibers carry impulses out from the center to their endings. Most of these go to muscles and are therefore called motor impulses; some are secretory and enter glands; a portion are inhibitory, their function being to restrain secretion. Thus, nerves carry impulses outward and sensations inward. The activity of these nerves, or rather their fibers, may become excited or allayed by impingement, the result being a modification of functionality – too much or not enough action – which is disease."[42]
Sharp neck pain is not in itself a red flag. Believe it or not there is no common worrisome cause of neck pain that is indicated by a sharp quality. In fact, oddly, sharp pains are actually a bit reassuring, despite how they feel. In isolation — with no other obvious problem — they usually indicate that you just have a temporary, minor source of irritation in the cervical spine. Serious causes of neck pain like infections, tumours, and spinal cord problems tend grind you down with throbbing pains, not “stab” you.
Dr. V.J. Maddio is a Helena native. He attended Montana Statev1173c.jpg University on a wrestling scholarship and studied five years of Associated Sciences with an emphasis in Exercise/Physiology and Sports Medicine. He graduated with his degree in chiropractic from Northwestern College of Health Sciences in Bloomington, MN. Dr. Maddio began his own practice in Helena, Montana in January of 1992. He and his wife, Maureen, have enjoyed raising their 3 children in the Helena community. He is involved in several community activities ranging from youth sports to service organizations. Dr. Maddio is certified in Active Release Technique (ART), is a Certified Impairment Evaluator in the State of Montana, currently serves on the the Board of Chiropractors for the State of Montana, and is past President of the Montana Chiropractic Association.
Licensure takes place at the state level under specific state laws. Licensing and the scope of practice may differ from state to state. Most states require that chiropractors complete the National Chiropractic Board examination before they get their license. Some states also require chiropractors to pass a state examination. All states recognize training from chiropractic schools accredited by the Council of Chiropractic Education (CCE).
Headache. A 2011 systematic review found evidence that suggests that chiropractic SMT might be as effective as propranolol or topiramate in the prevention of migraine headaches.[110] A 2011 systematic review found evidence that does not support the use of SM for the treatment of migraine headaches.[111] A 2006 review found no rigorous evidence supporting SM or other manual therapies for tension headache.[112] A 2005 review found that the evidence was weak for effectiveness of chiropractic manipulation for tension headache, and that it was probably more effective for tension headache than for migraine.[113] A 2004 Cochrane review found evidence that suggests SM may be effective for migraine, tension headache and cervicogenic headache.[114]
Spinal manipulation is associated with frequent, mild and temporary adverse effects,[14][138] including new or worsening pain or stiffness in the affected region.[139] They have been estimated to occur in 33% to 61% of patients, and frequently occur within an hour of treatment and disappear within 24 to 48 hours;[13] adverse reactions appear to be more common following manipulation than mobilization.[140] The most frequently stated adverse effects are mild headache, soreness, and briefly elevated pain fatigue.[141] Chiropractic is correlated with a very high incidence of minor adverse effects.[4] Chiropractic are more commonly associated with serious related adverse effects than other professionals following manipulation.[17] Rarely,[46] spinal manipulation, particularly on the upper spine, can also result in complications that can lead to permanent disability or death; these can occur in adults[14] and children.[142] There is a case of a three-month-old dying following manipulation of the neck area.[137] Estimates vary widely for the incidence of these complications,[13] and the actual incidence is unknown, due to high levels of underreporting and to the difficulty of linking manipulation to adverse effects such as stroke, which is a particular concern.[14] Adverse effects are poorly reported in recent studies investigating chiropractic manipulations.[143] A 2016 systematic review concludes that the level of reporting is unsuitable and unacceptable.[144] Reports of serious adverse events have occurred, resulting from spinal manipulation therapy of the lumbopelvic region.[145] Estimates for serious adverse events vary from 5 strokes per 100,000 manipulations to 1.46 serious adverse events per 10 million manipulations and 2.68 deaths per 10 million manipulations, though it was determined that there was inadequate data to be conclusive.[13] Several case reports show temporal associations between interventions and potentially serious complications.[146] The published medical literature contains reports of 26 deaths since 1934 following chiropractic manipulations and many more seem to remain unpublished.[17]
The patients were put into two groups. One group received traditional medical care for back pain along with chiropractic care; the other group only received traditional care. While traditional care can include medication, the chiropractic care included spinal manipulation adjustments along with manual therapies such as ice, heat, cryotherapy, and rehabilitative exercises.
Once your history is gathered, the chiropractor may complete a physical exam, or they may begin treatment. This may be a manual spinal manipulation, or the chiropractor may use various chiropractic instruments. After your adjustment is complete, the chiropractor will recommend a schedule of follow-up visits. The number of visits will depend on your current health condition, how much pain you’re in, and what other therapies you’re using to treat your pain. Chiropractic care is always best done in addition to other pain management treatments, such as physical therapy, medication, or pain-reducing injections.

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